Cultural Discourse looks at a broad range of cultural issues.
9th September 2012

On Planetary Scale Disasters

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The new millenium has brought with it new disasters of unprecedented scale and scope. These disasters have not only grown larger than they were in Neomodernity, but they are now coterminous with the sphere of the entire globe. There is nowhere where disaster is not. The days of peering safely over the fence at the catastrophes which have befallen the misfortunate Other are over with, for no matter who we are, or where we find ourselves on the map — First World or Third World no longer makes any difference since, as Hurricane Katrina demonstrated, these two worlds have now become tightly intermeshed — disaster, sooner or later, is going to find us.

The third and final part of this book, then, proceeds to analyze a series of disasters of planetary scale: the September 11 terrorist attacks upon New York City; the devastations wrought by Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans; the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China; an obscure and little known disaster that took place in the Exosphere above the earth in 2009, when two orbiting satellites, for the first time ever, crashed into each other; the BP oil spill; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima meltdown.

The 9/11 terrorist attacks, though they were localized to New York and Washington, D.C., were nonetheless global precisely because they were inflicted by a global terrorist network, an example of what Arjun Appadurai has termed diasporic public spheres. These are groups of people living in exile from their home states who are able, nonetheless, to connect with each other via the use of globalized technologies like cell phones and the Internet. Al-Qaeda, and other terrorist groups affiliated with it, such as the Islamic Group or al-Jihad, represent a new kind of enemy to the nation state, one that is diffuse, non-localized and stateless. As a result, it is a near impossibility to eradicate such social formations brought into being by global technologies, for they are like cancer in the sense that in order to get rid of them, you would have to attack the entire global system, which would have to be shut down and unplugged. At that point, they would cease to exist, but so, unfortunately, would everything else. Al-Qaeda and groups like them compose the shadow side of globalization, for with global technology comes global terrorism.

The attacks themselves — and those that followed in Madrid and Britain in the subsequent years — are also planetary in another sense, one specified by Ulrich Beck, in which he pointed out that such attacks demonstrate that there is no longer any safe place anywhere on the planet that is not under threat by terrorist attack. The apparent randomness of the attacks points up the fact that the entire planet is now their target, for there is no longer a battlefield of any sort. In traditional wars, the front was where the tanks were, but today there is no front precisely because the front is right where you and I are standing. Anyone, anywhere could be hit: that subway, this bus, that building over there, this train station over here. No place is safe, and the entire planet, therefore, is now, for the first time, under military threat (before that, nuclear threat was planetary, too, but not a particularly credible one).

This, of course, thrusts the contemporary human being into a new existential situation in the world in which, far worse than Heidegger’s Angst, the individual as a member of a molar population now finds himself a potential target. We are all targets today. The disintegration of the polarity of battlefield vs. domus — together with so many other such traditional philosophical polarities as nature vs. culture, inside vs. outside — is now upon us.

In the case of Hurricane Katrina, another apparently localized catastrophe, the “natural” catastrophe of a hurricane that nearly wiped out an entire metropolis, we find ourselves facing the results of another planetary catastrophe, in this case, that of global warming. As many of our climate scientists have demonstrated, 2005 was the hottest year on record, with a record number of storms. A warmed planet means warming oceans, and that means more energy in the atmosphere. Global warming is an ongoing planetary catastrophe that is happening, in slow motion, all around us right this very moment. As you read these words, CO2 levels continue to rise; Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets continue to melt; and sea levels continue to elevate. In one hundred years, most climate scientists are now saying, we will be living in a very different, indeed, scarcely recognizable, world.

With the 2008 earthquake that took place in the Sichuan Province of China, we are dealing with the world’s first man-made earthquake (or at least, the first that we know of). As the result of the pressure and weight of the reservoir at Zipingpu Dam, which sits right on a fault line, the tectonic plates were disrupted and loosed enormous amounts of energy in the form of a 7.9 earthquake. This, too, is a global problem, since massive industrial engineering projects have been built everywhere on the planet, and it is within the bounds of possibility that such projects are somehow destabilizing the lithosphere beneath our feet. Geologists have suggested recently that earthquakes are on the rise and getting bigger, and more of them may be man-made than we care to want to realize. Our technologies have taken on a truly vast, gargantuan nature, and now they seem to be disrupting the very cosmic forces that hold the planet together.

The 2009 crash of two orbiting satellites in the Exosphere above the earth is the first dromospheric accident to take place in orbit. The implications of this accident, as the essay explores, are that the entire planet is now surrounded by a thermo- and exospheric envelope of crashes and collisions which, according to the Kessler Syndrome, are waiting to unfold over the next few decades.

So, consistent with the planetary scale of our industrial undertakings, the accidents and disasters that such projects inevitably bring along with them have now been scaled up in magnitude to the size of the entire planet. Indeed, the value of this technological experiment undertaken by Western civilization has never seemed to be more in question than it is now.

In attempting to surround himself with a technospheric exoskeleton in order to compensate for the loss of the ancient planetary spheres that once protected him from the impact of “too much reality,” the human being has now walled himself inside of a metallic shell in which catastrophes have become a daily occurrence. Indeed, the belt of satellites in the Thermosphere has now become the modern equivalent of the Roman limes, that ancient wall stretching across the middle of Europe that demarcated the civilized world of the Romans from the lawless and chaotic wilderness of the German barbarians. It is only in the Exosphere above and beyond the satellized Thermosphere where today the artifacts of human technological civilization begin to thin out and shade off into the chaotic wildernesses of outer space.

And now, the option of escape from this techno-shell has vanished, for there is no longer any such thing as an “outside” of civilization to escape to. In the cosmologies of the ancient Gnostics, the cosmos was a sort of prison constructed by evil cosmic architects known as Archons, who built it as a machine for trapping and confining human souls into physical bodies. The only way out of such confinement was to attain, through gnosis, an escape of the soul from the body, which could then ascend out beyond the whirling spheres governed by the Archons to the cosmic Plenum that lay beyond them. Today, such an outside would exist only somewhere beyond the pale above the Exosphere, but then, that is a realm that is inherently hostile to biological life and no place for man to build space rafts for himself as substitute vehicles of ascension with which to escape from a decimated earth and its techno-polluted solar system.

Like it or not, the earth is an orb upon which we find ourselves stranded for the forseeable future.

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9th August 2012

From “The Age of Catastrophe”: An Excerpt

The Age of Catastrophe: Disaster and Humanity in Modern Times

A Few Words on a Civilization’s Loss of Command Over its Environment

by John David Ebert

One of the constitutive aspects of Martin Heidegger’s analysis of the worldhood of the world — of its nature as a world — is that the objects around us making up our daily lives create a kind of closed referential totality such that we scarcely notice them. That is, the objects that surround and comprise the everydayness of our world have a tendency to withdraw from us and blend in to the world which they compose. They only stand out when they break down, become unusable or otherwise damaged. At that point, the object becomes conspicuous — Heidegger’s example of the broken hammer has become proverbial — and stands forth into our awareness as a problem. The object no longer blends in but has now shifted into a theoretical mode in which it has become a problem for the human intellect to solve.

But as the following chapters should, if I have done my job right, make abundantly clear, we are now surrounded, everywhere we look, by broken technological artifacts that have stood forth from the background of global consumer society and made themselves conspicuous through the increasingly ubiquitous phenomena of accidents and catastrophes. Technology as a whole, that is to say, has now come into question as the result of this pile-up of broken down machines that have come crashing forth from out of the background of our awareness and into the field of our concern. Technology, as was once the case during, say, the nineteenth century, no longer forms an unnoticed and therefore subliminal world-round inside which we are contained, but now stands forth into the clearing of our mentality as something that has become a problem to be solved, and therefore, impossible to ignore. The entire technological landscape has now shifted into the mode of Heidegger’s broken hammer, and so it must now be theorized about as a problem.

Apparently, the decade of the 1930s was the point at which this took place, for it wasn’t until then that books written about technology in the abstract began to appear, beginning with Oswald Spengler’s Man and Technics in 1931 and Lewis Mumford’s Technics and Civilization in 1934. Heidegger’s famous essay on “The Question Concerning Technology” was first delivered in its earliest form as one of his Bremen Lectures of 1949, while Marshall McLuhan’s The Mechanical Bride soon followed in 1951. Jacques Ellul’s Technological Society, furthermore, appeared in its original French version in 1954, while the later books of McLuhan, such as Understanding Media, soon followed.

Once any subject — and in this case, we are concerned with technology — has shifted into the mode of discussion, worry and theory, you can be sure that that subject is being noticed precisely because it has become a problem.

It was Arnold Toynbee, furthermore, who, in his monumental A Study of History, pointed out back in the 1930s that one of the conspicuous signs of a disintegrating society is a slow, gradual loss of command of its ability to control its environment. A decreasing technical and artistic ability, he insisted, was one of the symptoms — though not the cause — of the breakdown of a civilization.

The great civilizations have each had their own particular stylistic bias; that is, like human individuals, they all did one thing better than the others. For the Egyptians, this was their elaborate articulation of the rituals and technologies associated with the Afterlife; for the Greeks, it was a keen aesthetic sensibility; for the Hindus, a superior religious development; for the Mesopotamians, an advanced hydraulic civilization based upon an extremely complex irrigation system; and for the West, it has been a machinic specialization evident from as early as the stirrups and iron horseshoes of the fifth century.

Consistent with this logic, then, a breakdown in one or the other of these areas of expertise in their respective civilizations should be an unfailing marker that the society in question had reached the limits of its mortality, and was beginning to enter the initial stages of its senescence. And indeed, when one surveys the evidence, this does appear to be the case.

In ancient Egypt, for instance, a gradual loss of competence in the technical abilities attending the mortuary practices of its ancient cults becomes evident around the period of the 22nd Dynasty, in which the elaborate imagery associated with tomb decoration begins to disappear. Coffins become shoddier and shoddier from this point on and by the 25th Dynasty, the famous canopic jars were artistically inferior as well.

It was the great Near Eastern scholar Thorkild Jacobsen, furthermore, who noticed that the shift in Mesopotamia from the homeland of the Sumerians in the south near the Persian Gulf, to the north with the coming of the Babylonians, and then even further north with the Assyrians, paralleled a gradual depletion and exhaustion of arable soils along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Jacobsen suspected that this shift was not accidental but mapped out the slow, inevitable salinization of the soils due to the failing Mesopotamian irrigation system. The shifting of each Mesopotamian kingdom further and further north was symptomatic of its southern neighbors’ gradual loss of command over their land, as their canals silted up, and their soils became ruined by salt.

In ancient India, a gradual loss of command over the religious sphere begins to become evident from about the twelfth century on, where a certain sugary sweetness appears first in Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda and then with the rise and spread of the sentimentality of the bhakti cults with their Krishna avatars and circling gopis. The sophistication of yoga and philosophy slowly gave way to the kitsch of folk art and popular piety.

And in Classical civilization, as is well known, the decline in Greek sculpture and statuary that began to set in from the Hellenistic period was tantamount to the rise of melodrama, realism and bombast — first evident in the “Wagnerian” art of Pergamene — which became slowly rigidified and calcined until, with the severe and imposing Roman portrait busts, this great art came to its end.

But these, of course, are only some of the most conspicuous examples of the phenomenon. We need only think of a few others — the loss of the Hinayana Buddhist control over the great irrigation tanks on the island of Ceylon; the loss of the ability of the Polynesians of Easter Island to create their stone statues, which had become legend already by the time of Captain Cook’s arrival there in the eighteenth century; or the ghostly, dust-blown ruins of desert oasis cities like Petra and Palmyra — in order to remind ourselves that the phenomenon is not at all a rare one, for every civilization is mortal and all eventually lose their ability to shape and command Form in the effort to reverse Entropy into higher, more complex dissipative structures.

And this is no less so in the case of our modern Western civilization, as the following catalogue of disasters reveals. Indeed, the increasing banality of disaster, its overwhelming everydayness, points to the fact that the West is slowly losing its grip over its environment, namely, its ability to command Nature by manipulating its forces with machines and technological apparatuses. It was precisely this ability — first evident in the windmills, waterwheels, and mechanical clocks of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries — that marked the emergence of Western civilization as a unique society entering upon the stage of world history with a style of unprecedented technological mastery over Nature. An ever increasing abundance of catastrophes, however — whether defined as “technological” or “natural” — means that more and more turbulence is building up in the system of the West’s great global megamachine, and as any student of chaos theory knows, turbulence can only increase so much before the system snaps into a phase change governed by an altogether different systemic attractor.

Everywhere we look nowadays, upon the distant horizons — like those tiny burning villages and shattered boats and windmills in the dim backgrounds of the paintings of Bosch and Brueghel — planes are falling, cars are crashing and buildings are crumbling, their foundations washed away into the sea by the ever-swelling tides and tsunamis brought forth by rising sea levels and global earthquakes. It would appear that we are entering into the early stages of a mortal illness that is spreading throughout the West and is revealing itself through the pile up of disasters as the West’s gradual loss of command over its own particular environment, namely, the orb of the earth itself.

But, after all, the great cavalcade of machines cannot continue to unfold forever. Sooner or later, the sheer abundance and profusion of them is bound to generate so much entropy in the environment that it will cause far more problems for us than the machines will actually solve.

Once, long ago, at the dawning of Western civilization, its creaking windmills and chiming clocks shone with a kind of divine aura to the Gothic monks who brought them into being as revelations of a whole new age, a Third Age, that is, of the Holy Spirit — as articulated by Joachim of Floris — during which the Spirit would descend to earth and reveal a New macro-order of world history to those initiated into the secrets of the Machine and its inner workings.

But now, the Machine has become more of a source of fear and apprehension than a revelation of the interior workings of the mind of God. It has shifted its ontological status from a mechanization of the Holy Spirit to a threatening mechanical demon sent up from Hell — like those homocidal robots in the Terminator movies — to harry and hound the human being to the edges of his Final Days.

We never know, anymore, when the elevator we are riding in is going to stop; or the balcony we are leaning on to look over the atrium of some hotel is going to give way; or whether the roof of the stage at a rock concert is going to come down on our heads. Technology, these days, can no longer be trusted.

We simply never know when it is going to turn against us, for it is becoming increasingly more and more expected that it will fail, give out, and bite back when we least expect it to.

Thus, the arc of Western culture, long past its noon, and long since having diverged with the ever rising arc of technology which surpassed it long ago, is coming, lightly, to rest upon the earth, while somewhere, not too far ahead of it, the arc of technology, too, is now coming down from the heavens like a falling satellite whose orbit is decaying as it comes crashing toward the earth.

Who knows where the pieces will land?

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24th July 2012

On Jean-Michel Basquiat

Jean-Michel Basquiat and the Quest for a New Semiotic Machine

by John David Ebert

Apparatuses of Semiotic Capture

The central anxiety of Basquiat’s art — and it is an anxiety that runs through every single painting he ever did — is the absence of an apparatus of semiotic capture. In an age of semiotic overload when all the signifiers have been torn free from the previous apparatuses that once captured and bound them into ordered systems of meaning and significance (i.e. Heidegger’s various epochs of Being; Sloterdijk’s macrospheres, etc.), the precise problem now for the artist who finds himself on the outside of Everything is to find and construct new apparatuses that will capture and collect the signifiers, assigning them new places of fixity and meaning, thus neutralizing the dangers of information overload (which tends to have a hollowing effect on the human subject). Read the rest of this entry »

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26th June 2012

On Mark Rothko

Mark Rothko and the Fate of Being

An Essay by John David Ebert


In a series of paintings executed in 1946, Mark Rothko, for the first time in his art, began to create a unique, signature style. For twenty years, he had been trying, and mostly failing, to discover a vision that persistently eluded him through a series of pastiches, first, of nineteenth century Impressionist masters like Cezanne, and then, from about 1940, of Modernist giants like Picasso, Miro and Matta. These early works, however, while sometimes brilliant, were almost never original, and it wasn’t until he began to melt down the Modernist iconotypes in those 1946 paintings known as “multiforms” that he began to articulate something truly new. Indeed these paintings are tantamount to a complete singularity, a rupture, not only with all his previous work, but with the history of twentieth century art, as well. For these canvases function like X rays to reveal the collapse and dissolution of Modernist art, an art that, by the time of World War II, had largely run its course.

But since Rothko’s art is all about the fate of the West’s understanding of Being, it will be necessary, at the start, to briefly review the history of that understanding. Read the rest of this entry »

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21st June 2012

On Francis Bacon

The Art of Francis Bacon

An Essay by John David Ebert


Francis Bacon’s art is the kind of art that surfaces into view when a World collapses. Like the art of Hieronymous Bosch or Pieter Brueghel, which unleashed a cavalcade of horrors at precisely the time when the Christian macrosphere was undergoing disintegration due to the impacts of new tools and principles of the scientific age then dawing — i.e. the perspectival grid captured in Durer’s 1525 woodcut of a Draughtsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman; the retrieval of Platonic mathematics by Copernicus — such an art opens up the Gates of Hell, as it were, and unleashes a flood of cosmic monsters which the functioning macrosphere had been specifically erected to defend Civilization against. Just as the walls of Medieval cities had kept the siegeing armies of the Vikings and later, the Moors at bay, so too, the Western mind had built ontological walls designed to keep the demons from the world Out There from infiltrating the collective consciousness of European society. Read the rest of this entry »

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